internal combustion engine to the fuel cell:
Moving towards the Hydrogen economy
SWM, 1:00 PM
J. Farrauto, Engelhard Corporation, 101 Wood Avenue, Iselin, New
of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitric oxides emitted from
the gasoline internal combustion engine has been achieved using
heterogeneous catalysts present in the automobile exhaust. The three
way catalytic converter (TWC), first introduced in 1980, has been
effectively used throughout the world significantly reducing emissions.
The desire for enhanced fuel economy and lower emission of greenhouse
gases has suggested the need for new modes of engine operation.
We are now seeing the emergence of hybrid engines (internal combustion
engines in combination with batteries) and significantly improved
lean-burn engines (i.e. diesel) both of which address improved fuel
economy and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Although progress continues
to be made in new internal combustion engine technologies the world
is turning towards fuel cells which utilize hydrogen and oxygen
to power the future.
The fuel cell converts chemical energy (H2 and O2) directly to electricity
avoiding the thermodynamic limitations (Carnot Cycle) imposed by
the mechanical steps of the internal combustion engine resulting
in greatly reduced efficiencies. There is no combustion and thus
no primary pollutants and no greenhouse gas emissions dependent
on the source of the hydrogen. Finally we can envision an ideal
hydrogen economy in which hydrogen derived from natural energy sources
such as the sun, wind and/or geothermal is used as a source of power.
Therefore there continues to be a growing interest in fuel cells
and hydrogen generation research. Most major automobile companies
are demonstrating fuel cell vehicles. We are also beginning to see
fuel cells replacing batteries in portable power applications. The
first generation of fuel cell systems for combined heat and power
for residential use are rapidly under development in many parts
of the world. Let us not forget that the fuel cell is the main power
source for space vehicles.
Today's seminar will present the state of the art in catalytic emission
control from the internal combustion engine and some of the catalytic
challenges being addressed in the development of fuel cells for
the hydrogen economy.